This report aim to show the affect and the harmful of ozone depletion in the world specific in Australia country, this report show some information about ozone depletion in Australia such as the history, definition, causes, health effect and why Australia must take care about this issue. At the end, ozone depletion is very big issue in the world because it has a lot of affect in plant, human also the animals so must take care about this issue and government must tell the population about the risk that result from ozone depletion and ask them to must reduce used the product that may case ozone depletion such as refrigerators.
Ozone is a gas that is naturally present in our atmosphere. Each ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is denoted chemically as O3. Ozone is found primarily in two regions of the atmosphere. About 10% of atmospheric ozone is in the troposphere, the region closest to earth. The remaining ozone 90% resides in the stratosphere, primarily between the top of the troposphere and about 50 kilo-meter altitude. It is commonly called the “ozone hole” because the ozone depletion is so large localized. A thinning of the ozone layer also has been observed over other regions of the globe, such as the arctic and northern middle latitudes.
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Ozone forms a layer in the stratosphere that absorbs dangerous solar ultraviolet radiation. Increasing amounts of man- made chemicals are accelerating the speed at which ozone molecules are destroyed. These ozone-destroying chemicals come mainly from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used in a range of products from refrigerators and air conditioners to soft foams and cleaning solvents. Their quantities in atmosphere have been rising rapidly since the mid-1970s.
For every 10 percent depletion of ozone layer, we can expect a 20 percent increase in ultraviolet radiation arriving at the ground in life-damaging wavelengths. This radiation could change genetic structure, alter immune systems, damage crops, disrupt the marine food web, and enhance greenhouse warming by affecting the carbon dioxide-absorbing capacity of plankton in the oceans. The incidence of human skin cancer could increase, and the sight of millions could be affected as more intense ultraviolet radiation damages eyes and causes cataracts. Plant growth may be inhibited by the extra ultraviolet radiation and crop yields may be reduced.
How is ozone formed in the atmosphere?
Ozone is formed throughout the atmosphere in multistep chemical processes that require sunlight. In the stratosphere, the process begins with the breaking apart of an oxygen molecule (O2) by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the lower atmosphere (troposphere), ozone is formed in a different set of chemical reactions involving hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing gases.
Why do we care about atmospheric ozone?
Ozone in the stratosphere absorb of suns biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation. Because of this beneficial role, stratospheric ozone is considered “good ozone”. In contrast, ozone at earth’s surface that is formed from pollutants is considered “bad ozone” because it can be harmful to humans and plant and animal life. Some ozone occurs naturally in the lower atmosphere where it is beneficial because ozone helps remove pollutants from the atmosphere.
Dose depletion of the ozone layer increase ground-level ultraviolet radiation?
Yes, ultraviolet radiation at earth’s surface increases as the amount of overhead total ozone decreases, because ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Measurements by ground-based instruments and estimates made using satellite data have confirmed that surface ultraviolet radiation has increased in regions where ozone depletion is observed.
What Causes Ozone Depletion in Sydney Australia?
Being in urban area that highly populated ozone depleting substances release heavily in Sydney. CFCs used by most of transportation and air conditioners along with commercial refrigeration equipment or air conditioners. Methyl chloroform release in the industrial factories of Sydney as a result of production.
Skin and eyes affects by Ultraviolet radiation. Cancer is the most harmful diseases affect skin from the sunlight. By exposure Cancer is often brought to a mutagen, which can change the genes. Promotes chemical change in the DNA by Ultraviolet radiation is a well known mutagen. People over 40 years old are more likely to most skin cancers, when these people were children the actual damage that caused the cancer occurred.
The highest incidence of skin cancer in the world is in Australia. With only .3% of the world’s population, they manage to account for 6 % of all lethal forms of skin cancer diagnosed globally. About 1200 people die each year in Australia as a result of skin cancer. Doesn’t just cancer caused by Sunlight also painful sunburn, skin ages and eyes affected by radiation from the sun.
What’s Being Done About Ozone Depletion?
Damage to the earth’s protective layer has sparked unprecedented concern and action. Over 165 countries have signed the Montreal Protocol, an International agreement to phase out ozone depleting substances.
As one of these countries, Australia continues to be a world leader in the phase out of ozone depleting substances, and is well ahead of the Protocol requirements. Sydney’s approach has been based on a highly cooperative partnership between industry, the community, and all levels of government.
since 1989,The manufacture, CFCs import and export, halon, and methyl chloroform have been controlled in Australia.
Environmentally preferable alternatives are available for almost all applications and are gradually being switched to in Sydney.
During 1990s the importation and production of CFCs stopped by the Australia. This saw the consumption of ozone depleting substances fall by 86%, from 832 Ozone Depleting Potential Tones (ODPT) in 1999 to 119 ODPT in 2009. This current level (119 ODPT in 2009) represents less than 1% of Australia’s consumption of ozone depleting substances in 1989.
By about 2050, natural ozone production reactions should return to normal levels. We can’t make enough ozone to replace what’s been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone depleting substances,
Australiaââ‚¬â„¢s approach to disposal and destruction of ozone depleting substances
Australia has developed a robust and functioning product stewardship programmed for the management of ozone depleting substances and synthetic greenhouse gases, which ensures the proper handling of these substances from their import into Australia through to their eventual disposal and destruction. It functions on the ââ‚¬Å“polluter paysââ‚¬ principle, with industry funding the scheme through a levy imposed on imports of bulk gases and gas contained in refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. Fees from issuing licenses also assist the Australian Government in administering the various license schemes connected to the consumption of ozone depleting substances and synthetic greenhouse gases. In recent decades, the Australian Government has been implementing a highly effective national strategy for the recovery, management and disposal of haloes.
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In summary, Ozone depletion has further increased the risk that Australians already face from overexposure to UV radiation resulting from their outdoor lifestyle. In much the same way a cloud blocks the heat on a hot day, the ozone layer in the stratosphere blocks out the sun’s deadly ultraviolet rays. It acts as our planets natural sun block. As the ozone layer diminishes, the harmful rays increase along with the rates of skin cancer.
At the end, ozone depletion is very important issue around the world because it causes a lot of diseases for human and even plants and animals, so must take care about this problem and try to tell the people about the harmful of the ozone depletion to take awareness and reduce used the items which may cause ozone depletion such as: refrigerators and air-conditioned.
United Arab Emirates University
Department of Science
Environmental science subject
Name: Nouf Ali Hamad Alkaabi
Section : 54
Climate 101: Ozone Depletion | National Geographic
Far above Earth’s surface, the ozone layer helps to protect life from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Learn what CFCs are, how they have contributed to the ozone hole, and how the 1989 Montreal Protocol sought to put an end to ozone depletion.
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Climate 101: Ozone Depletion | National Geographic